Hobbes, Lev IX

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CHAPTER IX: OF THE SEVERAL SUBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE

1. THERE are of knowledge two kinds, whereof one is knowledge of fact; the other, knowledge of the consequence of one affirmation to another. The former is nothing else but sense and memory, and is absolute knowledge; as when we see a fact doing, or remember it done; and this is the knowledge required in a witness. The latter is called science, and is conditional; as when we know that: if the figure shown be a circle, then any straight line through the center shall divide it into two equal parts. And this is the knowledge required in a philosopher; that is to say, of him that pretends to reasoning.

2. The register of knowledge of fact is called history, whereof there be two sorts: one called natural history; which is the history of such facts, or effects of Nature, as have no dependence on man's will; such as are the histories of metals, plants, animals, regions, and the like. The other is civil history, which is the history of the voluntary actions of men in Commonwealths.

3. The registers of science are such books as contain the demonstrations of consequences of one affirmation to another; and are commonly called books of philosophy; whereof the sorts are many, according to the diversity of the matter; and may be divided in such manner as I have divided them in the following table.

1. SCIENCE, that is, knowledge of consequences; which is called also 2.

    PHILOSOPHY
      1. Consequences from accidents of bodies natural; which is called
         NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
           1. Consequences from accidents common to all bodies natural;
              which are quantity, and motion.
                1. Consequences from quantity, and motion indeterminate;
                   which, being the principles or first foundation of
                   philosophy, is called philosophia prima
                   PHILOSOPHIA PRIMA
                2. Consequences from motion, and quantity determined
                     1. Consequences from quantity, and motion determined
                        By figure, By number
                        Mathematics,
                           + GEOMETRY
                           + ARITHMETIC
                     2. Consequences from motion, and quantity of bodies in
                        special
                          1. Consequences from motion, and quantity of the
                             great parts of the world, as the earth and
                             stars,
                             Cosmography
                                + ASTRONOMY
                                + GEOGRAPHY
                          2. Consequences from motion of special kinds, and
                             figures of body,
                             Mechanics, doctrine of weight
                                + Science of ENGINEERS
                                + ARCHITECTURE
                                + NAVIGATION
           2. PHYSICS, or consequences from qualities
                1. Consequences from qualities of bodies transient, such as
                   sometimes appear, sometimes vanish
                   METEOROLOGY
                2. Consequences from qualities of bodies permanent
                     1. Consequences from qualities of stars
                          1. Consequences from the light of the stars. Out
                             of this, and the motion of the sun, is made
                             the science of
                             SCIOGRAPHY
                          2. Consequences from the influence of the stars,
                             ASTROLOGY
                     2. Consequences of qualities from liquid bodies that
                        fill the space between the stars; such as are the
                        air, or substance etherial
                     3. Consequences from qualities of bodies terrestrial
                          1. Consequences from parts of the earth that are
                             without sense,
                               1. Consequences from qualities of minerals,
                                  as stones, metals, etc.
                               2. Consequences from the qualities of
                                  vegetables
                          2. Consequences from qualities of animals
                               1. Consequences from qualities of animals in
                                  general
                                    1. Consequences from vision,
                                       OPTICS
                                    2. Consequences from sounds, MUSIC
                                    3. Consequences from the rest of the
                                       senses
                               2. Consequences from qualities of men in
                                  special
                                    1. Consequences from passions of men,
                                       ETHICS
                                    2. Consequences from speech,
                                         1. In magnifying, vilifying, etc.
                                            POETRY
                                         2. In persuading,
                                            RHETORIC
                                         3. In reasoning,
                                            LOGIC
                                         4. In contracting,
                                            The Science of JUST and UNJUST
      2. Consequences from accidents of politic bodies; which is called
         POLITICS, AND CIVIL PHILOSOPHY
           1. Of consequences from the institution of COMMONWEALTHS, to the
              rights, and duties of the body politic, or sovereign
           2. Of consequences from the same, to the duty and right of the
              subjects
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