Peirce, On a New List of Categories, § 14
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§ 14. A quality may have a special determination which prevents its being prescinded from reference to a correlate. Hence there are two kinds of relation.
- 1st. That of relates whose reference to a ground is a prescindible or internal quality.
- 2nd. That of relates whose reference to a ground is an unprescindible or relative quality.
In the former case, the relation is a mere concurrence of the correlates in one character, and the relate and correlate are not distinguished. In the latter case the correlate is set over against the relate, and there is in some sense an opposition.
Relates of the first kind are brought into relation simply by their agreement. But mere disagreement (unrecognized) does not constitute relation, and therefore relates of the second kind are only brought into relation by correspondence in fact.
A reference to a ground may also be such that it cannot be prescinded from a reference to an interpretant. In this case it may be termed an imputed quality. If the reference of a relate to its ground can be prescinded from reference to an interpretant, its relation to its correlate is a mere concurrence or community in the possession of a quality, and therefore the reference to a correlate can be prescinded from reference to an interpretant. It follows that there are three kinds of representations.
- 1st. Those whose relation to their objects is a mere community in some quality, and these representations may be termed Likenesses.
- 2nd. Those whose relation to their objects consists in a correspondence in fact, and these may be termed Indices or Signs.
- 3rd. Those the ground of whose relation to their objects is an imputed character, which are the same as general signs, and these may be termed Symbols.
Peirce, On a New List of Categories, CP 1.558, CE 2.55–56