Racism

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'''''Racism''''' is commonly defined as a [[belief]] or a [[doctrine]] that inherent biological differences among the various [[human]] races determine cultural or individual achievement, with a [[corollary]] that one's own [[race]] is superior and has the right to rule others. '''''Racism''''' is commonly defined as a [[belief]] or a [[doctrine]] that inherent biological differences among the various [[human]] races determine cultural or individual achievement, with a [[corollary]] that one's own [[race]] is superior and has the right to rule others.
-[JA. replace online dictionary with authoritative standard like OED or Webster: name="freedict"> {{cite web |http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/racism}}].+[JA. replace online dictionary with authoritative standard like OED or Webster: name="freedict"
 +cite web |http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/racism]
The term racism is sometimes used to refer to preference for one's own ethnic group. The term racism is sometimes used to refer to preference for one's own ethnic group.
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([[ethnocentrism]]), ([[ethnocentrism]]),
-<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hawaii.edu/cpis/psi/gender/gender_colonialism.html | title = Document equating ethnocentrism with racism+<ref>
 +cite web |url=http://www.hawaii.edu/cpis/psi/gender/gender_colonialism.html | title = Document equating ethnocentrism with racism
</ref> </ref>
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<ref> <ref>
-{{cite web |url=http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/family/cruz-berson.html |title = Document equating views against miscegenation with racism}}+cite web |url=http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/family/cruz-berson.html |title = Document equating views against miscegenation with racism
</ref> </ref>
and [[nationalism]], and [[nationalism]],
-<ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.experiencefestival.com/nationalism_-_racism| title = Document equating nationalism with racism+<ref>
 +cite web| url = http://www.experiencefestival.com/nationalism_-_racism| title = Document equating nationalism with racism
</ref> </ref>
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==Definitions of racism== ==Definitions of racism==
-{{Further|[[Race (historical definitions)]]}}+: ''See [[Race (historical definitions)]]''
When racism, a belief, is applied in practice, it takes forms such as prejudice, [[Discrimination#Racial discrimination|discrimination]], segregation or [[subordination]]. Racism can more narrowly refer to a ''system'' of oppression, such as [[institutional racism]]. When racism, a belief, is applied in practice, it takes forms such as prejudice, [[Discrimination#Racial discrimination|discrimination]], segregation or [[subordination]]. Racism can more narrowly refer to a ''system'' of oppression, such as [[institutional racism]].
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Based on the [[Mandal commission]] report submitted during 1980, the [[Indian Government]] decided to reserve 27% more seats to students from [[Other BackwardCastes|Backwards classes]] and bring the total reservation percentage up to 50%. Subsequent surveys conducted by the government indicate that economical and educational level of backward classes is comparable to people from upper [[castes]]. Based on the [[Mandal commission]] report submitted during 1980, the [[Indian Government]] decided to reserve 27% more seats to students from [[Other BackwardCastes|Backwards classes]] and bring the total reservation percentage up to 50%. Subsequent surveys conducted by the government indicate that economical and educational level of backward classes is comparable to people from upper [[castes]].
- 
-[ja] convert the following links to citations: 
[http://www.southasianmedia.net/cnn.cfm?id=292238&category=Social%20Sectors&Country=INDIA] [http://www.southasianmedia.net/cnn.cfm?id=292238&category=Social%20Sectors&Country=INDIA]
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[http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-39296115,prtpage-1.cms.]. [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-39296115,prtpage-1.cms.].
- 
-[/ja] 
In recent years, so called upper castes are able to secure only 2.3 percentage of total seats in professional education as against their population of 15%. In recent years, so called upper castes are able to secure only 2.3 percentage of total seats in professional education as against their population of 15%.
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Some scholars have suggested that capitalism has played a large role in promoting racism especially socioeconomic racism. The slave trade and colonialist activities were mostly conducted by the earliest capitalist economies ie; Great Britain, the United States and the Netherlands. Some scholars have suggested that capitalism has played a large role in promoting racism especially socioeconomic racism. The slave trade and colonialist activities were mostly conducted by the earliest capitalist economies ie; Great Britain, the United States and the Netherlands.
-[http://.www.zmag.org/CrisesCurEvts/bohmerrace.htm][http://.race.eserver.org/toward-a-theory-of-racism.html]+[http://.www.zmag.org/CrisesCurEvts/bohmerrace.htm]
 + 
 +[http://.race.eserver.org/toward-a-theory-of-racism.html]
Critics have pointed out that a slave labor economy was the ultimate form of capitalism because the capitalists made pure profits because they used free labor. Critics have pointed out that a slave labor economy was the ultimate form of capitalism because the capitalists made pure profits because they used free labor.
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<ref> <ref>
-{{cite web |url=http://them.polylog.org/4/ahe-en.htm | title = Document describing crypto-racism as hidden racism|work=A Dozen Rules of Thumb for Avoiding Intercultural Misunderstandings|publisher=Forum For Intercultural Philosophy}}+cite web |url=http://them.polylog.org/4/ahe-en.htm | title = Document describing crypto-racism as hidden racism|work=A Dozen Rules of Thumb for Avoiding Intercultural Misunderstandings|publisher=Forum For Intercultural Philosophy
</ref> </ref>
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<ref> <ref>
-Leanne S. Son Hing, Greg A. Chung-Yan, Robert Grunfeld, Lori K. Robichaud, and Mark P. Zanna. “Exploring the Discrepancy Between Implicit and Explicit Prejudice: A Test of Aversive Racism Theory” in <em>Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes</em>. Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, Simon M. Laham,eds. Cambridge University Press. 2004.+Leanne S. Son Hing, Greg A. Chung-Yan, Robert Grunfeld, Lori K. Robichaud, and Mark P. Zanna. "Exploring the Discrepancy Between Implicit and Explicit Prejudice: A Test of Aversive Racism Theory", in ''Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes''. Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, Simon M. Laham,eds. Cambridge University Press. 2004.
</ref> </ref>
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There have been attacks against Arabs and Iranians not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but on the basis of their ethnicity because numerous Christian Arabs and Iranians have also been racially attacked. There have been attacks against Arabs and Iranians not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but on the basis of their ethnicity because numerous Christian Arabs and Iranians have also been racially attacked.
-<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/niot/citizens_respond/losaltos.html Attacks on Arab Americans] (PBS)+<ref>
 +[http://www.pbs.org/niot/citizens_respond/losaltos.html Attacks on Arab Americans] (PBS)
</ref> </ref>

Revision as of 10:56, 25 October 2006

The article below may contain errors of fact, bias, grammar, etc. The Citizendium Foundation and the participants in the Citizendium project make no representations about the reliability of this article or, generally, its suitability for any purpose. We make this disclaimer of all Citizendium article versions that have not been specifically approved.

Image:ColoredDrinking.jpg
An [[African- American]] man drinks out of the "colored only" water cooler at a racially segregated streetcar terminal in the United States in 1939.

Racism is commonly defined as a belief or a doctrine that inherent biological differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, with a corollary that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.

[JA. replace online dictionary with authoritative standard like OED or Webster: name="freedict" cite web |http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/racism]

The term racism is sometimes used to refer to preference for one's own ethnic group.

(ethnocentrism),

<ref> cite web |url=http://www.hawaii.edu/cpis/psi/gender/gender_colonialism.html | title = Document equating ethnocentrism with racism </ref>

fear of difference (xenophobia), views or preferences against interbreeding of the races (miscegenation),

<ref> cite web |url=http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/family/cruz-berson.html |title = Document equating views against miscegenation with racism </ref>

and nationalism,

<ref> cite web| url = http://www.experiencefestival.com/nationalism_-_racism| title = Document equating nationalism with racism </ref>

regardless of any explicit belief in superiority or inferiority imbedded within such views or preferences. Racism has been used to justify social discrimination, racial segregation and violence, including genocide.

The term racist, when used to describe someone who supports racism, has been a pejorative term since at least the 1940s, and the identification of a group or person as racist is nearly always controversial.

Contents

Definitions of racism

See Race (historical definitions)

When racism, a belief, is applied in practice, it takes forms such as prejudice, discrimination, segregation or subordination. Racism can more narrowly refer to a system of oppression, such as institutional racism.

Historian Barbara Field argued in "Slavery, Race and Ideology in the United States of America" that racism is a "historical phenomenon" which does not explain racial ideology [need ref]. She suggests that investigators should consider the term to be an American rhetorical device, with a historical explanation. She suggests that using race as a word with real meaning is a common error akin to superstition. Other scholars, however, say that races do exist, and the concept has significant meaning.

Organizations and institutions that put racism into action discriminate against, and marginalize, a class of people who share a common racial designation. The term racism is usually applied to the dominant group in a society, because it is that groupthat has the means to oppress others. The term can also applies to any individual or group, regardless of social status or dominance.

Racism can be both overt and covert. Individual racism sometimes consists of overt acts by individuals, which can result in violence or the destruction of property. Institutional racism is often more covert and subtle. It often appears within the operation of established and respected forces in the society, and frequently receives less public condemnation than the overt type.

W.E.B. DuBois argued that racialism is the belief that differences between the races exist, be they biological, social, psychological, or in the realm of the soul. He argued that racism is using this belief to promote the belief that one's particular race is superior to the others.

According to Jared Diamond in his work Guns, Germs and Steel, race is essentially a social and historical construction. It has no real basis in science, nor can it be used to explain why Europe gained the upper hand in world conquests.

Types of racism

Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequalities among "races", as in institutional racism. The concept of Hate speech has been created in order to prosecute discriminative discourse, which may be penalized in various countries (e.g. United States, Canada, Germany, France).

Academic racism

Refers to the tradition of prejudicial study of people's societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars. With regards to African people its bases was formed during slavery and colonialism to remove any form of noble claim from the victims of these systems, thus reducing them and justifying their position as “natural” and a continuation of their historical “worthlessness.” Legendary quotes come from some of European most respected scholars such as, Darwin, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. David Hume, also said, ‘I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilised nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or in speculation. No ingenious manufacture among them, no arts, no sciences”. In the nineteenth century the German philosopher Hegel simply declared ‘ Africa is no historical part of the world.’ This openly racist view, that Africa had no history, was repeated by Hugh Trevor-Roper, Regius Professor of History at Oxford University, as late as 1963.

Scientific racism

Main article : Scientific racism
Image:Races and skulls.png
Nott and Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857) used misleading imagery to suggest that "Negroes" ranked between whites and chimpanzees. Note the different angles at which the "white" and "negro" skulls are positioned. Nott and Gliddon's work is considered one of the classics of scientific racism.

Scientific racism refers to the use of science (or the veneer of science) to justify and support racist beliefs. The use of science to justify racist beliefs goes back at least to the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence in the mid-19th century. Works like Arthur Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological difference among human beings, and with the rise of theories of evolution after the work of Charles Darwin became well-known, it became common to consider some races more evolved than others. These points of view were very common within the scientific community at the time—even Darwin, who was an active abolitionist and considered all humans to be of the same species (against a trend of polygenism popular in anthropology at the time) believed that there were inherent biological differences in the mental capacities of different races. Ideologies such as social Darwinism and eugenics used and reinforced many of these views.

There were also scientists who argued against biological reenforcement of racism, even if they believed that biological races did exist (though some did not). In the sciences of anthropology and biology, though, these were minority positions until the mid-20th century. During the rise of Nazism in Germany, many scientists in Western nations worked to de-bunk the racial theory on which the regime rested its claims of superiority. This, combined with repulsion to Nazi eugenics and the racial motivations behind the Holocaust, lead to a re-orientation of opinion around scientific research into race in the years following World War II. Changes within scientific disciplines—such as the rise of Boasian school of anthropology in the United States—also contributed to this shift. Since then, many of the scientific studies which some claim support racist claims have since been methodologically debunked by scientists with specifically anti-racist agendas, such as Stephen J. Gould. However, Gould himself has been accused by a number of scientists of misrepresenting the positions of those he engages, being politically motivated in his attacks, and being selective in his use of material to those ends.

The status of the concept of biological race remains very controversial within science, though practically no mainstream scientists admit to using scientific data to justify racist beliefs. Some scientists, such as Arthur Jensen and Richard Lynn, have argued that the threat of being labeled as a "scientific racist" has made the scientific study of race and racial differences politically taboo and has stifled true scientific discourse. These charges have surfaced most often during the study of intelligence, IQ, and the concept in psychometrics termed general intelligence factor. Many scientists, though, believe that there is no evidence for typological notions of biological race, nor scientific justifications for racist beliefs.

Individual, structural, and ideological racism

Main article : Institutional racism

Racism may be divided in three major subcategories: individual racism, structural racism, and ideological racism. Examples of individual racism include an employer not hiring a person, failing to promote or giving harsher duties or imposing harsher working conditions, or firing, someone, in whole or in part due to his race.

Researchers at the University of Chicago (Marianne Bertrand) and Harvard University (Sendhil Mullainathan) found in a 2003 study that there was widespread discrimination in the workplace against job applicants whose names were merely perceived as "sounding black". These applicants were 50% less likely than candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" to receive callbacks for interviews, no matter their level of previous experience. Results were stronger for higher quality résumés. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the country's long history of discrimination. This is an example of structural racism, because it shows a widespread established belief system. Another example is apartheid in South Africa, and the system of Jim Crow laws in the United States of America. Another source is lending inequities of banks, and so-called redlining.

Racial prejudice

Main article : Prejudice

This is pre-formed personal opinions about individuals on the basis of their race. (E.g. John thinks that Mary will have bad attribute X solely because Mary is a member of race Y.)

  • Global apartheid is a phrase used by those who argue that the international economic and political system is racist and is designed so that a white minority internationally accrue more wealth and power and enjoy more human and legal rights than the non-white world majority.

Racism as official government policy

Template:See Institutional racism or structural racial discrimination is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals. See Affirmative Action. Nazi Germany's state racism is the most famous example, along with South Africa during the apartheid era. Examples of racism in United States domestic policy include slavery and the genocide against Native Americans.

The practice of racist Jim Crow laws by Southern states was common until the 1964 Civil Rights Act gave the Federal government more enforcement power. During World War II, people of Japanese ancestry who was living on the west coast of the U.S. were imprisoned in internment camps. Other examples of racism in U.S. domestic policy included human experimentation without consent, the most famous case being the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in which Black males infected with syphilis were purposefully not treated in order to study the long-term effects of the disease.

In the 1970s, Ugandan President Idi Amin expelled tens of thousands of ethnic Indians. [1]. Until 2003, Malaysia enforced discriminatory policies limiting access to university education for ethnic Chinese and Indian students who were citizens of Malaysia by birth, and many other policies explicitly favoring bumiputras (Malays) remain in forceTemplate:Citation needed.

Some critics, including Gore Vidal, British MP George Galloway and Ward Churchill, have suggested that British and United States foreign policy in the Middle East is racist. George Galloway has also claimed that Arabs in the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp, Iraqis in the Abu Ghraib prison and other jails, and civilians in Iraq, are not being treated as human beings by the United StatesTemplate:Fact.

Racial profiling of minorities by law enforcement officials is considered by some people to be a form of racism. Some claim that profiling young Arab males at airports will only lead to increased recruitment by terrorists of old non-Arab females, as well as Arab males who can "pass" as a non-ArabTemplate:Fact. Some state that this profiling is unnecessary, as it brings about the mistrust of many peopleTemplate:Fact. Some critics claim that racial profiling of citizens in the United States is an unconstitutional practice because the government is infringing upon an individual's freedom just on the basis of what a racial group is believed to be more likely to do (in this case, commit terrorism).Template:Fact French philosopher Michel Foucault argued in Discipline and Punish (1975) that such profiling shifts the emphasis from the act itself (the crime) to the person (the "criminal"), and that a general tendency of "disciplinary societies" is to create the psychological category of "delinquent".

Based on the Mandal commission report submitted during 1980, the Indian Government decided to reserve 27% more seats to students from Backwards classes and bring the total reservation percentage up to 50%. Subsequent surveys conducted by the government indicate that economical and educational level of backward classes is comparable to people from upper castes.

[2]

[3]

Certain Indian states, such as Tamil Nadu, reserve around 70% of the total seats to students belonging to certain castes.

[4].

In recent years, so called upper castes are able to secure only 2.3 percentage of total seats in professional education as against their population of 15%.

[5]

A person born in a backward caste is eligible for reservation irrespective of their economical or social status. Many politicians, film stars, and rich industrialists also reap reservation benefits.

[6]

Accusations have been made that the Indian parliament, dominated by people from backward classes has amended

[7]

the constitution whenever a court judgement was not in favour of reservation decisions

Economics and racism

Historical economic or social disparity is alleged to be a form of discrimination which is caused by past racism, affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and other kinds of preparation in the parents' generation, and, through primarily unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population. (E.g. A member of Race Y, Mary, has her opportunities adversely affected (directly and/or indirectly) by the mistreatment of her ancestors of race Y.)

Some scholars have suggested that capitalism has played a large role in promoting racism especially socioeconomic racism. The slave trade and colonialist activities were mostly conducted by the earliest capitalist economies ie; Great Britain, the United States and the Netherlands.

[8]

[9]

Critics have pointed out that a slave labor economy was the ultimate form of capitalism because the capitalists made pure profits because they used free labor.

[10].

Crypto-racism and aversive racism

Elmar Holenstein uses the term crypto-racism as a synonym what he calls "hidden racism".

<ref> cite web |url=http://them.polylog.org/4/ahe-en.htm | title = Document describing crypto-racism as hidden racism|work=A Dozen Rules of Thumb for Avoiding Intercultural Misunderstandings|publisher=Forum For Intercultural Philosophy </ref>

while blogger Josh Marshall uses it in contrast to "closet racism"

(usage example [11]).

Some scholars use the term "aversive racism" to refer to the “subtle, unintentional form of bias that is presumed to characterize a substantial proportion of White liberals” (Son Hing et al, 275).

<ref> Leanne S. Son Hing, Greg A. Chung-Yan, Robert Grunfeld, Lori K. Robichaud, and Mark P. Zanna. "Exploring the Discrepancy Between Implicit and Explicit Prejudice: A Test of Aversive Racism Theory", in Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, Simon M. Laham,eds. Cambridge University Press. 2004. </ref>

Because they have internalized liberal egalitarian values, aversive racists are motivated to experience themselves as being nonprejudiced, but at the same time have unconscious, unavoidable racist feelings or judgements of which they’re typically unaware (ibid). Aversive racists will express these racist feelings or judgements in situations where a non-racialized justification to do so exists. "Thus, aversive racists are able to discriminate without acknowledging their prejudice because they excuse or justify their behaviour on‘reasonable’ grounds” (ibid, 290). It's likely that most people living in a liberal democratic, racially-structured society are aversive racists.

Cultural racial discrimination

This occurs when the assumption of inferiority of one or more races is built into the culturally maintained image of itself held by members of one culture. (e.g. Members of group X are taught to believe that they are members of a superior race, and, consequently, members of other races are inferior.)

Same-race racism

This can occur where members of one race associate behaviors or appearances of other members of their race as being in relation to another race which is regarded negatively. For example, there have been issues with darker-skinned African-Americans disliking lighter-skinned African-Americans because of their lighter shade of skin, which may be associated with White parentage at some point in their genealogy (but may also not). A form of cultural racism (see above) can also be related to this, where members of a racial group are chastized by members of their own group for co-opting a culture which is perceived to be associated with another race (for example, there exists a stigma in many African-American communities against "acting White").

Racial discrimination

This is differences in treatment of people on the basis of characteristics which may be classified as racial, including skin color, cultural heritage, and religion. (e.g. Mary refuses to hire John because he is of race Y.) This is a concept not unanimously agreed upon. While this usually refers to discrimination against minority racial groups in Western societies, it can also (arguably) refer to the opposite situation, and in that case is often called reverse discrimination when it is due to affirmative action or other attempts to remedy past or current discrimination against minority racial groups. Many do not consider this racism, but simply a form of discrimination.

Racialism

Main article : Racialism

This is a term often found within white separatist literature, inferring an emphasis in racial origin in social matters. Racism infers an assumption of racial superiority and a harmful intent, whereas separatists sometimes prefer the term racialism, indicating a strong interest in matters of race without a necessary inference of superiority or a desire to be harmful to others. Rather their focus is on racial segregation and white pride. In most English dictionaries currently there is no sharp distinction between "racism" and "racialism".

Anti-semitism

Main article : Anti-Semitism
Image:Nurembergracechart.jpg
The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 used a pseudo-scientific theory for racial discrimination against Jews. People with four German grandparents (white circles) were of "German blood," while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood". (1935 chart from Nazi Germany)

Anti-Semitism is a specific case of racism targeting the Jews, although scholars argue whether it should be considered a sui generis specie or not. Massive violent attacks against Jews have been recorded since at least the 12th century and eventually become known as pogroms after the events in the Russian Empire, where official segregation of the Russian Jews in the Pale of Settlement since the early 1800s was compounded by oppressive legislation such as the 1882 May Laws.

In the Middle Ages Iberian peninsula, the system of limpieza de sangre (cleanliness of blood) ostracized New Christians (offspring of Sephardic Jews who were forced to convert to Catholicism) from the rest of society. In Portugal, the legal distinction between New and Old Christians was ended in 1772.

Scholars distinguish traditional, religious anti-Semitism, which derives from Christian accusation of the deicide (cleared at the Second Vatican Council in 1965), with 19th-20th centuries racial anti-Semitism, which ultimately led to the Holocaust in which about 6 million European Jews, 1.5 million of them children, were systematically murdered.

The rise of views of the Jews as a malevolent "race" generated anti-Semitic conspiracy theories that the Jews, as a group, were plotting to control or otherwise influence the world. From the early infamous Russian literary hoax, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, published by the Tsar's secret police, a key element of anti-Semitic thought has been that Jews influence or control the world.

Reverse racism

Main article : Reverse discrimination

Reverse racism is a controversial term used to describe attitudes, behaviors, and policies which are racially discriminatory in a manner which is contrary (reverse) to a historical pattern of racial discrimination. Usually a historically sociopolitically nondominant race is perceived to benefit at the expense of a historically sociopolitically dominant race.

Reverse racism is typically used to describe discrimination by a minority race. An alleged example is supremacism and separatism by a minority race against the majority in the United States (which has a history of institutional racism by the majority, including slavery).

Reverse racism has also been used to describe discrimination against a majority race. South Africa is an example of a nation in which an economically, militarily, and culturally powerful minority has historically discriminated against a powerless and disenfranchised majority. Reverse racism in South Africa is understood to mean discrimination by the majority race against the minority.

Affirmative action (sometimes called positive discrimination outside the U.S.) is a government policy or a program of giving preferences to members of particular social groups, including races. Opponents contend that such preferential treatment by the government is a form of institutionalized reverse racism which unfairly discriminates against individuals by racial category. Proponents contend that such preferential treatment promotes racial integration and economic equality of groups which have been affected by racism.

Many opponents of reverse racism claim that use of the term itself is pejorative, racist and no more legitimate than any other form of racism. Some believe the term to be used almost exclusively against their racial group, implying that only members of their race are capable of being racists. Many opponents of the concept say exactly this, that racism is by definition exclusively of the race in power.Template:Fact

Groups alleged to be guility of reverse racism are included in the Racist Groups section below.

History of racism

See: Racism by country

A number of international treaties have sought to end racism. The United Nations uses the definition of racial discrimination laid out in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and adopted in 1966:

[Racial discrimination is] any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.

In 2000, the European Union banned racism along with many other forms of social discrimination: "Article 21 of the charter prohibits discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexual orientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality."

[12]

The medieval discourse of race struggle

Although anti-Semitism has a long European history, racism itself is frequently described as a modern phenomenon. In the view of the French intellectual Michel Foucault, the first formulation of racism emerged in the Middle Ages as the "discourse of race struggle", a historical and political discourse which Foucault opposed to the philosophical and juridical discourse of sovereignty.

<ref> Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended (1976-77) </ref>

According to Foucault, this first appearance of racism as a theoretical discourse (as opposed to simple xenophobia, which some might argue has existed in all places and times) may be found during the 1688 Glorious Revolution in Great Britain, in Edward Coke or John Lilburne's work.

However, this "discourse of race struggle", as interpreted by Foucault, must be distinguished from 19th century biological racism, also known as race science or scientific racism. Indeed, this medieval discourse has many points of difference with modern racism. First of all, in this "discourse of race struggle", "race" is not considered a biological notion — which would divide humanity into biological groups — but as a historical notion. Moreover, this discourse is opposed to the sovereign's discourse: it is used by the bourgeoisie, the people and the aristocracy as a mean of struggle against the monarchy.

This discourse, which first appeared in Great Britain, was then carried on in France by people such as Boulainvilliers, Nicolas Fréret, and then, during the French Revolution, Sieyès, and afterward Augustin Thierry and Cournot. Boulainvilliers, which created the matrix of such racist discourse in medieval France, conceived the "race" as something closer to the sense of "nation", that is, in his times, "people". Hence, he conceived France as divided between various nations — the unified nation-state is, of course, here an anachronism — which themselves formed different "races". Boulainvilliers opposed the absolute monarchy, who tried to bypass the aristocracy by establishing a direct relationship to the Third Estate. Thus, he created this theory of the French aristocrats as being the descendants of foreign invaders, whom he called the "Franks", while the Third Estate constituted according to him the autochthonous, vanquished Gallo-Romans, who were dominated by the Frankish aristocracy as a consequence of the right of conquest.

Henceforth, medieval racism was opposed to nationalism and the nation-state: the comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French Revolution, who borrowed Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", thus showed his despise for the Third Estate calling it "this new people born of slaves... mixture of all races and of all times". While 19th century racism is related to nationalism (some authors have opposed a "close nationalism", based on racism, etc., towards an "open nationalism", based on the universalist conception of the nation, etc.), medieval racism precisely divides the nation into various non-biological "races", which are the consequences of historical conquests and social conflicts.

19th century transformation of medieval discourse

See Scientific racism

Michel Foucault thus traces the genealogy of modern racism to this medieval "historical and political discourse of race struggle". According to him, it divided itself in the 19th century according to two rival lines: on one hand, it was incorporated by racists, biologists and eugenicists, who gave it the modern sense of "race" and, even more, transformed this popular discourse into a "state racism" (Nazism); on the other hand, Marxists also seized this discourse, transforming the essentialist notion of "race" into the historical notion of "class struggle", defined by socially structured position: capitalist or proletarian.

Thus, biological racism was invented in the 19th century. Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55) may be considered as one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, and which would progressively tie itself to nationalism and to the state, creating this new form of nationalism which appeared in the New Imperialism period and, in France, in the midst of the Dreyfus Affair. Hannah Arendt has shown in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) the emergence of "continental imperialisms", i.e. pan-Germanism and pan-Slavism, both racist ideologies which would play a decisive role after the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.

Other famous authors include Edouard Drumont, an anti-Semitic French author; Vacher de Lapouge's "anthroposociology"; Herder, who applied race to nationalist theory to develop militant ethnic nationalism; H.S. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century (a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race"); Madison Grant, a renowned eugenicist, author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916)... Such authors posited the historical existence of national races such as German and French, branching from basal races supposed to have existed for millennia, such as the Aryan race, and believed political boundaries should mirror these supposed racial ones.

Ethnic conflicts

See Ethnicity

Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity over the term. Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general phenomena, such as xenophobia and ethnocentrism, although scholars attempt to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an ideology or from scientific racism, which has little to do with ordinary xenophobia.

Others conflate recent forms of racism with earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict. In most cases, ethno-national conflict seems to owe to conflict over land and strategic resources. In some cases ethnicity and nationalism were harnessed to rally combatants in wars between great religious empires (for example, the Muslim Turks and the Catholic Austro-Hungarians).

Notions of race and racism often have played central roles in such ethnic conflicts. Historically, when an adversary is identified as "other" based on notions of race or ethnicity (particularly when "other" is construed to mean "inferior"), the means employed by the self-presumed "superior" party to appropriate territory, human chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations.

One example of the brutalizing and dehumanizing effects of racism was the attempt to deliberately infect Native Americans with smallpox during Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, itself a war intended to ethnically cleanse the "other" (Anglo-Americans) from Native American land.

According to historian Daniel Richter, Pontiac's Rebellion saw the emergence on both sides of the conflict of "the novel idea that all Native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,' and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other." (Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 208)

In the Western world, racism evolved, twinned with the doctrine of white supremacy, and helped fuel the European exploration, conquest, and colonization of much of the rest of the world -- especially after Christopher Columbus reached the Americas. Basil Davidson insists in his documentary, Africa: Different but Equal, that racism, in fact, only just recently surfaced—as late as the 1800s, due to the need for a justification of slavery in the Americas. The idea of slavery as an "equal-opportunity employer" was denounced with the introduction of Christian theory in the West.

Maintaining that Africans were "subhuman" was the only loophole in the then accepted law that "men are created equal" that would allow for the sustenance of the Triangular Trade. New peoples in the Americas, possible slaves, were encountered, fought, and ultimately subdued, but then due to western diseases, their population decreased innumerably. Through both influences, theories about "race" developed, and these helped many to justify the differences in position and treatment of people whom they categorized as belonging to different races (see Eric Wolf's Europe and the People without History).

Some people like Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda have argued during the Valladolid controversy in the middle of the 16th century, that the Native Americans were natural slaves because they had no "souls". In Asia, the Chinese and Japanese Empires were both strong colonial powers, with the Chinese making colonies and vassal states of much of East Asia throughout history, and the Japanese doing the same in the 19th-20th centuries. In both cases, the Asian imperial powers believed they were ethnically and raciacial prefrences too.

European colonialism

Main article : Colonialism

Authors such as Hannah Arendt, in her 1951 book The Origins of Totalitarianism, have pointed out how the racist ideology ("popular racism") developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories, and the crimes that accompanied it (such as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide, 1904-1907). Auguste Comte's positivist ideology of necessary social progress as a consequence of scientific progress lead many Europeans to believe in the inherent superiority of the "White Race" over non-whites.

Rudyard Kipling's poem on The White Man's Burden (1899) is one of the most famous illustrations of such belief, though also thought to be a satirical vantage of such imperialism. Racist ideology thus helped legitimize subjugation, slavery and the dismantling of the traditional societies of indigenous peoples, which were thus conceived as humanitarian obligations as a result of these racist rationalizations. Other colonialists recognized the depravity of their actions but persisted for personal gain and there are some Europeans during the time period who objected to the injustices caused by colonialism and lobbied on behalf of aboriginal peoples. Thus, when the so-called "Hottentot Venus" was displayed in England in the beginning of the 19th century, the African Association publicly opposed itself to this shameful exhibition. The same year that Kipling published his poem, Joseph Conrad published Heart of Darkness (1899), a clear criticism of the Congo Free State owned by Leopold II of Belgium.

Human zoos were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and anthropometry.

<ref> On A Neglected Aspect Of Western Racism, Kurt Jonassohn, December 2000 </ref>

<ref> cite news | authors=Pascal Blanchard, Sandrine Lemaire and Nicolas Bancel | title=Human zoos - Racist theme parks for Europe's colonialists | publisher=Le Monde Diplomatique | date=August 2000 | url=http://mondediplo.com/2000/08/07humanzoo

cite news | title= Ces zoos humains de la République coloniale | publisher=Le Monde diplomatique | date=August 2000|url=http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2000/08/BANCEL/14145.html (available to everyone) </ref>

Joice Heth, an African-American slave, was displayed by P.T. Barnum in 1836, a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Such exhibitions became common in the New Imperialism period, and remained so until World War II.

Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in 1906 by eugenicist Madison Grant, head of the Bronx Zoo, as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans: thus, racism was tied to Darwinism, creating a social Darwinism ideology which tried to ground itself in Darwin's scientific discoveries. The 1931 Paris Colonial Exhibition displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia.

<ref> The Colonial Exhibition of May 1931 (PDF) by Michael G. Vann, History Dept., Santa Clara University, USA </ref>

A "Congolese village" was on display as late as 1958 at the Brussels' World Fair.

Racism in the United States

Racism against Native Americans

The Native Americans have faced racism in the United States since the days of Colonial America. The Native Americans were massacred by US forces in the 19th century, which some claim was genocide

[13] [14].

US President Andrew Jackson was quoted as saying that" the only good Indian is a dead Indian"

[15].

Native Americans continue to face struggles. The Shoshone nation has accused the US government of racism for testing nuclear weapons close to their tribal lands. [16]

[17].

[18].

Slavery in the United States

Main article : Slavery in the United States

Contention over the morality and legality of the institution of slavery was one of the cardinal issues which led to the American Civil War. The failed attempt at secession by the Southern United States led to the Emancipation Proclamation, which was the official end of legal slavery in the United States.

Emancipated blacks in the United States still had to struggle against institutional racism, forced segregation, violation of voting rights, and even terrorism. The Ku Klux Klan is perhaps the most notorious of these organizations espousing racist ideologies and enforcing discriminatory cultural norms with murderous violence and the threat of murderous violence.

Discrimination against Japanese-Americans and Italian-Americans during World War II

During the second world war, over 100,000 Japanese-Americans and Japanese-Canadians were forcibly placed in concentration camps where they remained until the end of hostilities with Japan

[19]

[20].

The incident that triggered the surge of anti-Japanese racism was the Japanese Imperial Navy's attack on Pearl Harbor similar to how the events of 9/11 triggered a backlash against Arabs, Iranians and Muslims. Racism differs from country to country. Template:Fact

Tens of thousands of Italian-Americans were put in internment camps during World War II as well. Thousands more were placed under surveillence or had their property repossessed by the government. Joe DiMaggio's father, who lived in San Francisco, had his boat and house confiscated. One official stated that if it had not been for Joe DiMaggio's status as a baseball player, his father would most likely had been sent to an internment camp.

Racism against Arabs and Middle Easterners

Main article : Anti-Arabism

There are reports of a large increase in anti-Arab/anti-Iranian racism in the United States since the September 11 2001 attacks.

[21]

Racial profiling of people with a Middle Eastern ethnic background was proposed by a New York Congressman on 2006-08-15.

[22]

In movies and jokes, Arabs and Iranians have been shown as being terrorists and barbarians or as inferior people. [23].

Iraq and Iran were demonized by the US government and this led to hatred towards Arabs and Iranians living in the United States

[24]

[25]

There have been attacks against Arabs and Iranians not only on the basis of their religion (Islam), but on the basis of their ethnicity because numerous Christian Arabs and Iranians have also been racially attacked.

<ref> Attacks on Arab Americans (PBS) </ref>

Racism in Mexico, Central America, and South America

Though not widely known throughout the world, Latin America has a history of racism highly influenced by the colonial attitudes and devastation created by the Spanish conquest in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the conquest, the offspring of Spaniards and Native Americans became distinct and low caste in colonial society. The offspring, who generally resemble the American bloodline are now the majority thougout Latin America and are called by racists as "Indios", "nacos" or Mestizos.

As a term, the word Mestizo is a racist invention of colonial Latin America's Apartheid structure. Mestizo simply means "half breed". Europeans in Latin America during the colonial period intended "Mestizos" to be a serf race to "pure" European colonial overlords in designated fiefdoms (haciendas). A practical example of this practice can be found in the colonial government structure that required the top levels of government to be in the hands of European born individuals, called "Peninsulares". Middle management fell upon Europeans born in America without American blood, called "Crollos". Those of “Mestizo” blood were caste in the lowest echelon of society as miners and agricultural workers. However, "Mestizos" with lighter complexions sometimes rose to higher positions. Latin America’s history of exploitation and feudal economic practices contributed to the disruptive and destructive popularity of Socialist and Communist movements in Latin America throughout the 20th century. The legacy of the fiefdoms is the reason why Latin America is constituted by so many small nations, despite nearly identical cultures.

Due to the megadeath of Native Americans and the destruction of native institutions during the Spanish genocide, ethnic identity is not a clear matter in Latin America. In large part and for the definitive worse, Latin American "Mestizos" have adopted the backward Latin culture and religion of Europe. See the writings of Alvaro Vargas Llosa for discussion on relationships between development and culture in Latin America. For Spain and Portugal, pillaging South America and Mexico for commodities like gold, silver, and sugar in a mercantilist economic structure for nearly 3 centuries, achieved no long-term competitive advantage over other Western European cultures like those of Britain, Holland, and Germany. Today, Spain and Portugal are two of the poorest countries of Western Europe. For Latin America, adopting the culture of Europe's most backward nations hurt the economic development as the countries came to resemble backward European locations like Spain and Sicily. However, as most of Latin America's current leadership has stronger educational ties with the United States, UK, and Holland, the culture is now changing and economic growth is escalating. Free trade agreements (like MERCOSUR) are challenging the need for borders among the nearly identical national cultures. Further, information technology and media consolidation is serving to further unify the Latin America's vast "Mestizos" majority.

Racism in Argentina

While Argentina has considered itself a crisol de razas or melting pot, it has only recently begun to recognize itself as a multicultural, multiracial society. The government of Argentina has taken significant formal steps toward the elimination of racial discrimination over the last decade. However, the measures provided by legal and institutional changes are still in the initial stages of implementation and have been substantially hindered by a lack of funds, the logistical and political complications associated with the transfer of power from one party to another in 1999, and Argentina's history of racism.

Most sources report Argentina's population as 97 per cent white (mostly of Italian and Spanish descent) and three percent mestizo (Amerindian' and European), Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups.

The nineteenth century founders of the nation aimed to make Argentina a white nation through various policies aimed at eliminating ethnic minority populations, while simultaneously encouraging European immigration. The 1853 Constitution is still largely in force today, and the preference for European immigration remains explicit. Racial discrimination persists against indigenous peoples, immigrants, Afro-Argentines, mestizo Argentines, Jews and Arabs. Argentina's indigenous peoples face struggles concerning fundamental issues of survival, maintenance of cultural and linguistic integrity, land rights and bilingual education. Furthermore, the small, impoverished, socially maligned population must fight for mere recognition. The indigenous population in Argentina according to the 2005 Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples, stands at approximately 318,700 people (0.8 percent of the total population)

[26].

Despite the constitutional recognition of indigenous people and formal protection of their rights to bilingual education, ownership of their ancestral lands, and guaranteed participation in resource management and development, in practice, indigenous peoples seldom participate in the management of their natural resources. In addition, indigenous peoples face social marginalization; for example, idiomatic slang like "hablo como un indio ' ('I'm speaking like an Indian") used when one does something considered stupid, enforces deprecatory views of indigenous peoples.

Immigration from other South American nations rose in the second half of the 20th century. Korean immigrants also began to arrive in significant numbers in the 1970s (totaling approximately 30,000 by 1998). The delayed 2000 census and the large number of undocumented immigrants makes an accurate assessment of recent immigration difficult, but the 1991 census counted close to five per cent of the total population as foreign born. Undocumented immigrants are estimated at 500,000 to 2,500,000. While statistics are not available regarding the racial identity of the Latin American immigrants, given the primary source countries, it can be reasonably assumed that the majority of immigrants are mestizo or indigenous.

The widespread perception that Argentina is essentially white has meant that, as immigration from South America increases, Argentines of mestizo, indigenous and African ancestry are perceived as foreign, whether or not they are immigrants. Immigrants are disproportionately detained by the police, as the Minister of Justice admitted, but the government denies xenophobia. The public also perpetrates racial discrimination; for example, in admission to nightclubs in Buenos Aires, discrimination against Latin American immigrants and those who appear to be mestizo has been well documented.

Politicians have used rising crime rates in the metropolitan Buenos Aires area to fuel xenophobia and to argue for further restrictions on immigrants. They blame immigrants for the rise in crime, despite the government's own statistics demonstrating that immigrants were not responsible for the majority of crimes. News reports on the proposed legislation referred to foreign workers as an "invasion' and also blamed them for lower wages and high unemployment. Discrimination against Korean immigrants significantly worsened after a series of news reports in 1993 on a case of Korean grocers exploiting undocumented Bolivian immigrant workers and stealing electricity from the State appeared in the press. A previous popular image of Koreans as industrious changed to an image of Koreans as poorly integrated, exclusive, and not willing to learn Spanish. Their presence in good schools and neighbourhoods has been described as an invasion.

The Jewish population in Argentina is estimated at two per cent (the largest in Latin America and fifth worldwide). The most recent manifestations of Argentina's history of anti-Semitism include the terrorist bombings of the Israeli embassy (1992) and the Argentine Jewish Mutual Aid Association (1994), the desecration of Jewish cemeteries and the prevalence of swastikas and anti-Semitic slogans among the graffiti on buildings (including government buildings) in Buenos Aires. Anti- Semitic attitudes are widespread among the populace, and many do not consider Jewish people to be truly Argentine. Anti-Semitism within security forces also remains a significant problem. For example, until popular agitation forced a change in 2000, a police manual contained racist and anti-Semitic expressions.

According to the Arab-Argentine chamber of commerce, there are Currently over 3.5 million Arab descendants in Argentina, notably including former President Carlos Menem. While his Syrian ancestry did not prevent him from being elected -- an important indicator of the lack of discrimination -- he was required to convert to Catholicism when he ran in 1989 (this prerequisite has since been abolished), and informal criticisms of him during his tenure were sometimes radicalized.

In recent years, the Argentine government has made significant formal advances towards the elimination of discrimination and racism. The majority of these formal steps were undertaken by the administration of President Carlos Menem (1989-1999). However, the Menem administration was sharply criticized by human rights organizations, opposition political parties and the Catholic Church for xenophobia and antipathy to human rights agendas. The democratic transfer of power to the Alianza coalition party under the leadership of President Fernando de la Rua in December 1999 has furthered the anti-discrimination agenda of the government, but it has also delayed the implementation of relevant policies due to the change in leadership.

On 24 August 1994, the Argentine Constitution was amended in several ways that are relevant to the elimination of racial discrimination. In correspondence with international human rights instruments, new amendments prohibit discrimination, provide equal civil rights to nationals and foreigners, and recognize indigenous communities as previously-extant legal entities entitled to participation in relevant development issues. Under the auspices of the Instituto Nacional de Asuntos Indigenas (National Institute of Indigenous Affairs, INAT), various programmes have been established for furthering land re-distribution, bilingual education, health programmes, and rural economic development. Other articles allow for equal access to education, with protections for cultural identities and diversity, and give international human rights treaties, including the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, equal standing with the Constitution.

In addition to these constitutional amendments, various laws have been passed and decrees issued in recent years with the aim of eliminating racial and other forms of discrimination, documenting the occurrence of discrimination, and enabling victims to seek redress. These include laws criminalizing discriminatory acts or omissions based on race, ratifying International Labour Organization Convention No. 169 concerning the rights Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, and establishing the National Institute to Combat Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Racism (Instituto Nacional contra la Discriminacion, Xenophobia y Racismo, INADI). INADI was established by law in 1995 with the objective of elaborating national policies and concrete measures to combat discrimination, xenophobia and racism, and with the mandate of initiating and fulfilling actions to this end. INADI has held anti-discrimination training sessions for schoolteachers and law enforcement officials, and has launched public education campaigns. It also has established a mechanism to receive complaints and take action thereon in the courts. However, with difficult economic situations, anti- discrimination, government agencies like INADI and INAI suffer increased budget constraints. INADI faces difficulty in covering the entire national territory, and does not have funding to track statistics on racial discrimination and on its responses to the complaints it receives.

The Argentine government's recent measures against racial discrimination are commendable, but they are only a step on the way. Discrimination persists against immigrants, indigenous populations, and other racial minorities, and the government must increase funding to anti-discrimination agencies, collect census data, and launch public education programs to insure that legal measures translate into genuine relief for Argentina's maligned populations [27].

Nazism and Japanese imperialism

Main articles : Nazism, Japanese nationalism

The Nazi, and Nazi-resembling regimes which rose to power in Europe and Japan before World War II advocated and implemented policies and attitudes which were racist, xenophobic, and often genocidal. While racism, xenophobia, and genocide were not new, the scope of the acts committed by the German Nazis and the Japanese governments was larger than other examples.

Racism in Russia

Main article : Anti-national sentiment in Russia

Racism inside Russia is quite a modern post-USSR phenomenon that has been steadily growing in the past decade. In the 2000s, neo-Nazi groups inside Russia have risen to include as many as tens of thousands of people.Template:Fact Racism against the Caucasian peoples, Africans and Central Asians is an ever increasing problem.

Allegedly racist groups


See also

References

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^ {{cite web |url=http://www.hawaii.edu/cpis/psi/gender/gender_colonialism.html | title = Document equating ethnocentrism with racism

^ Document equating views against miscegenation with racism.

^ {{cite web| url = http://www.experiencefestival.com/nationalism_-_racism| title = Document equating nationalism with racism

^ Document describing crypto-racism as hidden racism. A Dozen Rules of Thumb for Avoiding Intercultural Misunderstandings. Forum For Intercultural Philosophy.

^ Leanne S. Son Hing, Greg A. Chung-Yan, Robert Grunfeld, Lori K. Robichaud, and Mark P. Zanna.“Exploring the Discrepancy Between Implicit and Explicit Prejudice: A Test of Aversive Racism Theory” in Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Joseph P. Forgas, Kipling D. Williams, Simon M. Laham,eds. Cambridge University Press. 2004.

^ Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended (1976-77)

^ On A Neglected Aspect Of Western Racism, Kurt Jonassohn, December 2000

^ "Human zoos - Racist theme parks for Europe's colonialists", Le Monde Diplomatique, August 2000. (English); "Ces zoos humains de la République coloniale", Le Monde diplomatique, August 2000. (French) (available to everyone)

^ The Colonial Exhibition of May 1931 (PDF) by Michael G. Vann, History Dept., Santa Clara University, USA

^ Attacks on Arab Americans (PBS)

Bibliography

  • Barkan, Elazar (1992), The Retreat of Scientific Racism : Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
  • Dain, Bruce (2002), A Hideous Monster of the Mind : American Race Theory in the Early Republic, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (18th century US racial theory)
  • Diamond, Jared (1999), "Guns, Germs, and Steel", W.W. Norton, New York, NY.
  • (Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 208) ?
  • Rocchio, Vincent F. (2000), Reel Racism : Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture, Westview Press.
  • Stokes, DaShanne (forthcoming), Legalized Segregation and the Denial of Religious Freedom, URL.
  • Stoler, Ann Laura (1997), "Racial Histories and Their Regimes of Truth", Political Power and Social Theory 11 (1997), 183–206. (historiography of race and racism)
  • Taguieff, Pierre-André (1987), La Force du préjugé : Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles, Tel Gallimard, La Découverte.

External links

  • Does race exist? argument against the existence of race as a biological entity
  • Race in-depth website about race
  • Eagle feather law details racism in religion law regarding eagle feathers for Native and non-Native Americans

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